# Solutions

- Code for beginner tutorial exercises

Before looking ahead to the answers, it is best to do absolutely everything you can to figure out how to write the programs on your own. Struggling through each exercises (and I know, it can be very frustrating!) is how you will learn to program better. A lot of programming is thinking and analyzing the code, followed by a few minutes of actually typing in the solution. Do not worry if it takes you hours to write a seemingly simply program in the beginning. It’s all part of the process.

Having said that. If you have tried everything you can (including studying the BR Wiki for error explanations and help with syntax etc), then use this document as a resource to help with the programs. I would encourage you to study the differences between my examples and yours to determine what the problem is, not just copying mine.

And remember, as they say, there’s more than one way to skin a cat. There’s more than one way to write a program, and so if yours differ from the ones here, don’t worry, as long as it works for its intended purpose.

Here we go:

## Contents

### CHAPTER 2

In this example, lines 20 to 60 include lots of spaces to make up the design you see there. When you run this program, it looks like this:

### CHAPTER 3

3.1 Extra Practice. Find the area:

3.3 Add CONV to AREA program above:

3.7 Extra Practice: The corrected code is highlighted in yellow:

10 Print “What is your favorite color?” 20 Input color$ 30 Print “What is your favorite number?” 40 input numb 50 Print “The square root of your favorite number is”;SQR(numb) 60 Print “Your favorite color is”; color$ 70 Stop

Punctuation matters!

### CHAPTER 4

### CHAPTER 5

5.1 Add a line label to line 20 and refer to it as the line-ref in the GOTO statement

5.2 Extra Practice

00010 ! Input Shape ! #autonumber# 10,10 00015 L2: print "Would you like to find the area of a:" 00020 print "(1) circle" 00025 print "(2) rectangle" 00030 print "(3) triangle?" 00035 input Shape 00040 if Shape=1 then 00045 goto CIRCLE1 00050 else if Shape=2 then 00055 goto RECT1 00060 else if Shape=3 then 00065 goto TRI1 00070 end if 00075 CIRCLE1: print "To find the area of a circle, what is the radius?" 00080 input Radius conv L80 00085 let Area=Pi*Radius**2 00090 print "The area is" 00095 print Area 00100 goto again 00105 ! 00107 L80: print "Please enter radius in number form" 00109 retry 00111 ! 00113 RECT1: print "To find the area of a rectangle, what is the length?" 00115 input Length 00117 print "and the height?" 00119 input Height 00121 print "The area is"; Height*Length 00123 goto again 00125 ! 00127 TRI1: print "To find the area of a triangle, what is the height?" 00129 input Ht 00131 print "and the width?" 00133 input Wt 00135 print "The area is";Ht*Wt/2 00137 ! 00139 again: print "Would you like to calculate the area of another shape? (Y/N)" 00141 input Again$ 00143 if Uprc$(Again$)="Y" then 00145 goto L2 00147 else if Uprc$(Again$)="N" then 00149 stop 00151 end if 00153 !

5.5 If Business Rules! resumed execution with the GOSUB statement after returning from a previous GOSUB, then BR would simply go into the 2nd GOSUB, then execute code in the 2nd GOSUB until BR encounters a RETURN

5.7 Chapter exercises

2. Comparing two loans. Due to the length of the program, it’s presented as a text file.

00001 print "COMPARE TWO LOANS USING THE " 00002 print "COMPOUND INTEREST INVESTMENT CALCULATOR" 00003 print " " 00004 print "Please state the initial amount of money you'd like to invest." 00005 input Prncpl conv CNVRSN 00006 print "Thank you, now what is the interest rate in percent?" 00007 input Rate conv CNVRSN 00008 let Rate = Rate/100 00009 print "And how many years is this investment?" 00010 input Yrs conv CNVRSN 00011 let Bal = Prncpl*(1+Rate/12)**(12*Yrs) 00012 print "investment: $";Prncpl;"rate (compounded monthly):";Rate*100;"%" 00013 print " " 00014 print "The value of the investment after";Yrs;"years is: $";Bal;"." 00015 ! 00016 pRINT "Is the second loan amount the same as the first? (Y/N)" 00017 input equal$ 00018 if uprc$(equal$) = "Y" then gosub opt3 else gosub opt2 00019 if bal2 >bal then print "The second loan yields more money." else print "The first loan yields more money." 00020 stop 00021 ! 00022 opt2: ! This compares different principal balances 00023 print "Please state the second initial amount of money you'd like to invest." 00024 input Prncpl2 conv CNVRSN 00025 print "Thank you, now what is the second interest rate in percent?" 00026 input Rate2 conv CNVRSN 00027 let Rate2 = Rate2/100 00028 print "And how many years is this second investment?" 00029 input Yrs2 conv CNVRSN 00030 let Bal2 = Prncpl2*(1+Rate2/12)**(12*Yrs2) 00031 print "investment: $";Prncpl2;"rate (compounded monthly):";Rate2*100;"%" 00032 print " " 00033 print "The value of the investment after";Yrs2;"years is: $";Bal2;"." 00034 return 00035 ! 00036 opt3: ! this compares two loans with the same starting balance 00037 print "Thank you, now what is the second interest rate in percent?" 00038 input Rate2 conv CNVRSN 00039 let Rate2 = Rate2/100 00040 print "And how many years is this second investment?" 00041 input Yrs2 conv CNVRSN 00042 let Bal2 = Prncpl*(1+Rate2/12)**(12*Yrs2) 00043 print "investment: $";Prncpl;"rate (compounded monthly):";Rate2*100;"%" 00044 print " " 00045 print "The value of the investment after";Yrs2;"years is: $";Bal2;"." 00046 return 00047 ! 00048 CNVRSN: print "Please use numbers only. Exclude characters and letters." 00049 retry

3. To add rangechecks, there could be several solutions. One idea is to use if/then statements and line labels, like these examples, inserted where appropriate:

00006 inputp: input Prncpl conv CNVRSN 00007 if prncpl >1000000 then print "The principal amount must be less than $1,000,000. I don’t believe you’re that rich! Please re-enter the amount." : goto inputp

00030 inputr: input rate conv CNVRSN 00031 if rate >30 then print "Rates are never that good!! Please re-enter the rate. It must be under 30%.” : goto inputr

4. This modification could be completed by the following examples, added where appropriate:

00065 if rate2=0, then rate2=rate*100

00075 if yrs2=0, then yrs2=yrs

### CHAPTER 6

Exercise 6.8, NEWSAL (Remember, there may be other ways to successfully solve these sample problems, listed below is just one way, for your reference).

### CHAPTER 7

Extra Practice 7.6, NEWSAL with TAB(x)

Extra Practice 7.8, NEWSAL with FORM statements

Extra Practice 7.9, NEWSAL with dollar symbols

Chapter 7.10 Challenge: Really try this yourself before looking at the answer!

### CHAPTER 8

Mid Chapter Exercise 8.2, Mayan pyramids...!

8.3 Chapter exercises:

1. 00010 FOR X=10 TO -8 STEP -3 00020 X 00030 NEXT X

3. The total interest paid will be $10,824.77 Here is the complete program:

00001 ! Loan Amortization Program 00009 ! #autonumber# 100 10 00010 ! 00011 print "What is the beginning balance of the loan?" 00012 input Prin 00013 print "What is the annual interest rate?" 00014 input Rate 00015 let Rate=Rate/12 00016 print "How long will you take to repay it? (in years)" 00017 input Yr 00018 let Mo=Yr*12 00019 let Mont=Prin*(Rate*(1+Rate)**Mo)/((1+Rate)**Mo-1) 00020 print "Your monthly payment is";Mont 00021 print 00022 print "Press any key to see the breakdown of monthly payments" 00023 KSTAT$(1) 00024 let balance=prin 00025 let monthly=mont 00026 print "Month";tab(9);"Interest";tab(18);"Principal";tab(28);"Balance" 00027 print "Number";tab(9);"Paid";tab(18);"Repayment";tab(28);"Remaning" 00028 for x=1 to Mo 00029 let INT=rate*balance 00030 let sumint=sumint+int 00031 let repay=monthly-int 00032 let sumrep=sumrep+repay 00033 let balance=balance-repay 00034 print using line : x,int,repay,balance 00035 line: form pic(###),pic($$$,$$$.##),pic($$$,$$$.##),pic($$$,$$$.##) 00036 next x 00037 print using line2: SUMint,sumrep 00038 line2: form "TOTAL:",pic($$$,$$$.##),pic($$$,$$$.##),x 5,"$0.00"

### CHAPTER 10

10.2 The yearly average (in this case YAV) can be calculated and printed by adding/changing the following lines:

00235 LET YAV=YAV+TEMPDIF(A) 00240 NEXT A

...

00263 LET YAV=YAV/12 00265 PRINT ! serves to drop the cursor down one line to separate text 00270 PRINT SPAV,NYAV, YAV

10.2 Challenge Question (CQ): Lines that have been changed have been highlighted

00002 dim Sptemp(12), Nytemp(12), Tempdif(12), Name$(12) 00003 data 6,17,38,49,66,75,93,84,77,67,42,22 00004 data 27,37,52,69,73,84,92,83,79,78,50,43 00005 data "January","February","March","April","May","June","July", "August", "September","October","November","December" 00006 print "Month"; Tab(15); "St. Paul ";" New York ";" Average" 00007 print 00008 for J=1 to 12 00009 read Sptemp(J) 00010 next J 00011 for K=1 to 12 00012 read Nytemp(K) 00013 next K 00014 for N=1 to 12 00015 read Name$(N) 00016 next N 00017 for C=1 to 12 00018 let Tempdif(C)=Sptemp(C)-Nytemp(C) 00019 ! If Tempdif(C) <0 Then Let Tempdif(C)=Tempdif(C)*-1 00020 print using TRY: Name$ (C),Sptemp(C),Nytemp(C),Tempdif(C) 00022 TRY: form C 15,N 5,N 10,N 9 00023 next C 00024 for A=1 to 12 00025 let Spav=Spav+Sptemp(A) 00026 let Nyav=Nyav+Nytemp(A) 00027 let Yav=Yav+Tempdif(A) 00028 next A 00029 let Spav=Spav/12 00030 let Nyav=Nyav/12 00031 let Yav=Yav/12 00032 print 00033 print using TRY: "Average",Spav,Nyav,Yav

Chapter 10 (End of Chapter) Exercise

Multiplication table:

00010 DIM MULT(9,9) 00020 FOR ROW=1 TO 9 00030 FOR COL=1 TO 9 00040 LET MULT(ROW,COL)=ROW*COL 00050 NEXT COL 00060 NEXT ROW 00070 FOR ROW=1 TO 9 00080 FOR COL=1 TO 9 00090 PRINT MULT(ROW,COL); 00095 ! Tbl: Form N 4 00100 NEXT COL 00110 PRINT 00120 NEXT ROW

### CHAPTER 11

11.6 Midchatper practice: Debugging. Here is the corrected program, with highlights on the corrections.

00020 print Newpage 00030 dim Field$(2)*20, Words$(2)*20, Refer$(2)*50, Entries(2) 00040 data "2,2,c 15","4,2,c 15" 00050 read Mat Field$ 00060 data "Product Name","Product Quantity","2, 20, c 15","4,20,c 12" 00070 read Mat Words$ 00080 read Mat Refer$ 00100 print fields mat Field$: mat Words$ 00110 input fields mat Refer$: name$,city$

11.7 Mid-Chapter Practice

00020 print Newpage 00030 dim Field$(2)*50, Words$(2)*50, Refer$(2)*50, Entries(2) 00040 data "2,2,cr 15, r /w:w","4,2,cr 15, s/r:b" 00050 read Mat Field$ 00060 data "Security Code","Current City","2, 20, c 15, ir/w:w","4,20,c 12, r/r:b" 00070 read Mat Words$ 00080 read Mat Refer$ 00100 print fields mat Field$: mat Words$ 00110 input fields mat Refer$: name$,city$

11 Chapter Exercise: Clean up FLSCREEN !

00010 ! .! #AutoNumber# 10,10 00020 PRINT NEWPAGE 00050 PRINT FIELDS "2,6,c 35, /w:W": "Please Enter the Following:" 00060 DIM FLDEFNS$(6)*40, PROMPT$(6)*15, INPUTFLD$(6),ANSWERS$(6)*20 00070 DATA "4,6,cR 20, /b:w","6,6,cR 20, h/b:w","8,6,cR 20, /b:w","10,6,cR 20, /b:w","12,6,cR 20, /b:w","14,6,cR 20,/b:w" 00080 READ MAT FLDEFNS$ 00090 DATA "Security Code:","Contact Name:","ID Number:","Company Name:","Street Address:","Website:" 00100 READ MAT PROMPT$ 00110 PRINT FIELDS MAT FLDEFNS$: MAT PROMPT$ 00130 DATA "4,40,c 6,i/r:w","6,40,c 20, /r:w","8,40,c 20, /r:w","10,40,c 20, /r:w","12,40,c 20, /r:w","14,40,c 20, /r:w" 00140 READ MAT INPUTFLD$ 00150 PRINT FIELDS: MAT ANSWERS$ 00160 INPUT FIELDS MAT INPUTFLD$: MAT ANSWERS$

### CHAPTER 14.3

MID-CHAPTER PRACTICE: Rewrite CHEKBOOK using arrays. Changes have been highlighted for reference.

00020 dim Fldef$(7)*30, Prompt$(7)*30,Inpdef$(7)*30, payee$*25, entries$(2)*25 00030 ! .!values for fldef$ 00040 print newpage 00050 data "8,4,c 20, a/w:w","10,4,c 20, a/w:w","12,4,c 20, a/w:w","14,4,c 25, a/w:w","16,4,c 25, a/w:w","18,4,c 20, a/w:w","20,4,c 20, /w:w" 00060 read mat fldef$ 00070 ! . !values for prompt$ 00080 data "Check Number", "Amount", "Type of Transaction", "Date Written (ddmmyy)", "Date Cleared(ddmmyy)","Payee","Account Number" 00090 read mat prompt$ 00100 ! .!values for input defs 00110 data "8,25,n 5, a/w:w","10,25,n 10.2, a/w:w","12,25,c 1, a/w:w","14,25,n 6, a/w:w","16,25,n 6, a/w:w","18,25,c 25, a/w:w","20,25,n 8, /w:w" 00120 read mat inpdef$ 00130 ! 00140 open #5: "name=chekbook.int,recl=63,use",internal,output,sequential 00150 begin: print !repeat entry again 00160 print newpage 00170 ! 00180 print fields mat fldef$: mat prompt$ 00190 input fields mat inpdef$: chnum, amount, typetran$, datew, datec,payee$,accnum 00200 ! 00210 let entries(1)=chnum 00220 let entries(2)=amount 00230 let entries$(1)=typetran$ 00240 let entries(3)=datew 00250 let entries(4)=datec 00260 let entries$(2)=payee$ 00270 let entries(5)=accnum 00280 ! 00290 write #5, using l700: entries(1), entries(2),entries$(1),entries(3),entries(4),entries$(2),entries(5) 00700 L700: FORM POS 16,C 1,POS 29,C 25,POS 1,N 5,N 10.2,POS 17,N 6,N 6,POS 54,N 8 00710 ! 00720 print fields "24,4,c 44": "Would you like to add another entry?(Y/N)" 00730 input fields "24,45,c 1":rpt1$ 00740 ! 00750 if UPRC$(rpt1$)="Y" then goto begin 00760 close #5:

NOTE: In line 700, the Pos statements re-arrange the mat entries$ and entries$ so that BR uses two arrays, but keeps the values in the appropriate order within the data file.